Skip to content

A DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) is a new form of organizational structure made possible by blockchain technology. DAOs provide a way for groups to coordinate, govern themselves, and pool funds, all without the need for traditional hierarchical leadership.

Defining Key Characteristics of DAOs

DAOs have a few key characteristics that differentiate them from traditional organizations:

  • Decentralized - There is no central leadership or hierarchy. Decision-making and governance is distributed among all members.
  • Autonomous - DAOs are self-operating according to rules encoded on the blockchain, minimizing the need for human management.
  • Membership-based - Participants must hold and stake governance tokens to join a DAO and take part in voting.
  • Transparent - All rules, activity, and financials are visible on the public blockchain for full transparency.
  • Rules-based - Participation and governance is bound by the DAO's coded rules and smart contracts.

Essentially, DAOs allow decentralized crowds to coordinate like an organization, only without central control. Everything is transparently governed by code.

The Origin of DAOs

The DAO concept originated in 2016 when an organization called "The DAO" was launched on the Ethereum blockchain by German startup The DAO was aimed to be a decentralized venture capital fund for funding Ethereum projects. It was governed entirely by smart contracts and ETH holders, not a central party.

The DAO raised over $150 million worth of ETH, becoming the largest crowdfund ever at the time. However, soon after launch, a hacker exploited a vulnerability in The DAO's code to siphon $50 million of funds. This led to a hard fork of Ethereum to return funds, disbanding The DAO.

While The DAO collapsed, it proved the concept of a decentralized autonomous organization. Many modern DAOs have since formed across various blockchains, learning from The DAO's mistakes. DAO structure and mechanics have evolved over time thanks to The DAO's pioneering attempt.

Reasons for the Emergence of DAOs

Several factors have fueled the rise of DAOs in recent years:

  • Disillusionment with hierarchies - DAOs let groups coordinate without centralized control or oversight. This avoids potential corruption or mismanagement by leaders.
  • Technological feasibility - Blockchains and smart contracts provide the tools to make DAOs functional. Such coordination was not possible before.
  • Alignment around communities - Crypto communities are globally dispersed but can rally around a project or cause. DAOs allow these communities to effectively organize.
  • New funding models - DAOs unlock innovative crowdfunding through tokenized voting and ownership. This attracts fresh capital.
  • Regulatory ambiguity - The legal standing of DAOs remains largely undefined, allowing more experimentation than traditional structures.

The confluence of these factors has brought distributed, blockchain-based governance from theory into reality in the form of DAOs.

Major Benefits of the DAO Model

DAOs introduce several major advantages over legacy organizations:

Decentralized Governance

Rather than top-down control, DAOs spread governance and voting rights across all participants. This decentralization curbs abuses of power and provides greater representation for all stakeholders.

Trust Minimization

DAOs minimize the need to trust human managers by encoding coordination rules into immutable smart contracts. Financials are also visible on-chain.

Censorship Resistance

Participation in DAOs is pseudonymous and permissionless. Voting power is based on token holdings rather than identity. This makes censorship of participants virtually impossible.

Flexible Structure

DAOs have no fixed format. The rules, rights, and incentives are all customizable when the DAO is created. DAOs can take on whatever form best suits their purpose.

High Participation

By distributing governance across all members, DAOs incentivize and receive high participation rates compared to traditional organizations.

Fast Coordination

DAOs can quickly coordinate groups and resources globally through fast blockchain-based voting and automated smart contracts rather than slow bureaucratic processes.

These advantages enable novel new forms of human coordination specialized for the digital age.

Common Applications and Use Cases for DAOs

The DAO model is extremely versatile and can be applied to a variety of use cases:

Crowdfunding - DAOs can pool capital from a distributed group far beyond the limits of traditional fundraising.

Philanthropy - Charities and non-profits can transform into transparent, efficiently-run DAOs to better coordinate fundraising and spending.

Fan engagement - Entertainment creators like musicians can connect with fans via DAOs that crowdfund, give voting power, and provide exclusive benefits.

Protocols - Developers of crypto protocols like Uniswap and MakerDAO adopt DAOs to decentralize governance over upgrades and treasury management.

Investing - Investor groups can form DAOs to pool capital, vote on investment decisions, and collectively manage portfolios like a decentralized hedge fund.

Social media - Users can gather in social DAOs. Features like content moderation and policies can be collectively controlled.

Gaming - Players can assemble gaming guilds as DAOs to share resources, voting power, and gameplay incentives through NFTs and tokens.

These examples showcase the versatility of DAOs for funding, governing, and engaging communities. The possibilities are endless.

How DAOs Work Under the Hood

The mechanics of DAOs involve various components working together seamlessly:


DAOs issue tokens (usually on Ethereum) that represent voting shares and governance rights. Tokens align incentives and allow for pseudonymous participation.


Funds raised by the DAO such as from token sales or revenue are held in a treasury wallet only controlled by smart contract rules. This prevents misuse of funds.


Participants can submit proposals like funding requests or new policies. Token holders then vote on proposals using their voting power.


Voting on proposals and other governance matters is weighted according to token holdings. Results are executed automatically via smart contracts.

Smart Contracts

Smart contracts encode key governance and operational rules like voting procedures. This enables DAOs to function autonomously without human intervention.

These components synergize to enable decentralized, democratic governance of capital and communities without centralized management.

DAO Governance Mechanisms and Voting Systems

Effective governance is foundational to a well-functioning DAO. Various mechanisms and voting systems exist:

1. Token-Weighted Voting

The most common approach is allocating votes proportional to the quantity of governance tokens held by each member. This gives larger stakeholders more influence while still empowering all participants. Vote weighting incentivizes staking tokens in the DAO.

2. Quadratic Voting

In quadratic voting, voters can allocate tokens equal to the square of the number of votes they want to cast on a specific proposal. This allows voters to express both the direction and strength of their preferences.

3. Reputation-Weighted Voting

Some DAOs track on-chain reputation metrics like a user's past voting activity, contribution history, etc. to determine voting power. This rewards engaged members with greater influence.

4. Time-Locked Tokens

DAOs can implement token vesting schedules that gradually unlock voting rights over long time periods. This incentivizes long-term alignment with the DAO.

5. Delegative Voting

Token holders can delegate their votes to trusted thought leaders or experts who then vote on their behalf. This helps mitigate uninformed voting.

6. Proxy Voting

In proxy voting, rather than delegating votes directly to another member, token holders can authorize an on-chain smart contract to vote on their behalf according to certain rules or logic.

These systems create different incentives and impacts on governance. DAOs can mix and match approaches or invent new mechanisms through code.

Building Blocks: Toolkits and Frameworks for Launching DAOs

Creating a DAO from scratch can be daunting. Thankfully, toolkits and frameworks have emerged to make DAO creation modular and accessible.

OpenZeppelin Governor

OpenZeppelin provides Governor, a standard smart contract suite for configurable token-based voting and time-locked tokens on Ethereum.


Aragon offers end-to-end tools for DAO creation including modular smart contracts, voting interfaces, and DAO management software.


DAOHaus lets DAO founders quickly assemble default smart contracts and customize parameters through a user-friendly interface. It also provides shared community resources for DAOs.


DAOstack allows creating DAOs focused on reputation and holographic consensus through its Alchemy framework and Holographic Consensus modules.


Colony supplies modular smart contracts for task management, funds allocation, and reputation tracking for incentivizing productivity in DAOs.

DAO Creator

DAO Creator provides pre-built templates and frameworks for common DAO use cases like philanthropy, gaming, protocol governance, etc.

By composing modules from tools like these, founders can launch customized DAOs adapted to their needs without advanced technical expertise.

Major DAOs in Operation Today

While the concept is still emerging, live DAOs managing significant capital and communities already exist:


MakerDAO governs the $12+ billion Maker protocol which maintains the DAI stablecoin. MKR token holders vote on risk management and other parameters for the protocol.


Development, updates, and treasury management for Uniswap, the largest decentralized exchange, is directed by the UNI token holder community through Uniswap's DAO.


ConstitutionDAO famously crowdfunded $47 million from 17,000+ donors in 7 days to bid on a rare copy of the U.S. Constitution at auction before being outbid.


PleasrDAO is a collective that purchases culturally significant NFTs and artifacts like the original doge meme NFT which it acquired for $4 million.

Friends With Benefits

FWB is a social DAO with over 10,000 members that vote on content policies and community initiatives while sharing content and connections.

These major DAOs signal a shift toward decentralized coordination and governance as traditional institutions increasingly adopt DAO structure.

The Emergence of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs)

Decentralized autonomous organizations, or DAOs, are a new phenomenon rising to prominence over the past few years. DAOs have the potential to revolutionize human coordination and governance thanks to the confluence and maturation of cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology, and open source movements.

DAOs represent a radical shift from conventional companies and organizations in several key ways:

  • They are decentralized rather than having a central point of control or hierarchy
  • Decision making and governance in a DAO is codified into open source, transparent smart contracts
  • Rules and decision making logic are baked into code rather thanDetermined subjectively by managers or directors
  • Activity is coordinated peer-to-peer between members rather than via a management structure
  • There are few if any "employees" or internally contracted services since most work can be crowdsourced from global talent pools
  • Role assignment is dynamic based on reputation and incentivization mechanisms rather than static job titles and descriptions
  • Ownership and equity is tokenized into digital assets rather than static shares of stock
  • Funding is crowdsourced through token sales or continuous decentralized contributions rather than via centralized financing

This decentralized model of human organization has emerged thanks to blockchain technology providing the technical rails for governance through smart contracts, value exchange through cryptocurrency tokens, and coordination through encrypted ledgers shared peer-to-peer. DAOs thus exemplify the potentially transformative societal and economic power of blockchain applied to new domains.

While the DAO concept first emerged around 2016, DAOs have much earlier origins tracing back decades:

Decentralized Technology

Advancements in cryptography, peer-to-peer networks, open source software, consensus mechanisms like blockchain have gradually enabled decentralized coordination, collaboration, and governance without centralized authorities.

Digitization of Finance and Money

Digitization of money through cryptocurrency and digital financial services has laid the groundwork for organizations to operate through digital rather than physical means.

Online Communities

The emergence of the internet has connected people directly for collaboration and community rather than via institutions. This has made decentralized organization more natural.

Crowdsourcing and Gig Work

Trends toward crowdsourcing, remote work, and decentralized gig labor have gotten people accustomed to fragmented and distributed work in contrast to centralized companies.

Open Source Culture

The open source ethos has promoted transparent, permissionless development powered by autonomous, decentralized communities of contributors rather than top-down managed projects.

Digital Organizations

Before DAOs, internet communities self-organized into collaborative groups like forums, Reddit subs, chat groups, and email lists with informal governance and norms.

DAOs essentially formalize these digital-native organizational types into a new kind of lasting internet-native entity with formalized rules for governance and coordination. DAOs can be seen as a mature crystallization of the open, participatory culture nurtured across the internet into an impactful new economic and social model.

The Components and Mechanics of Operating a DAO

While decentralized and autonomous in nature, DAOs have concrete components and processes that allow them to function smoothly:


DAOs are composed of any number of individuals who engage in the community and participate in governance. Becoming a member requires owning governance tokens.

Governance Tokens

DAOs issue tokens like shares of ownership that grant voting rights in the organization proportional to the number held. Tokens align incentives around participation.


A DAO's reserve of funds raised from the initial token sale or ongoing revenue. Treasury funds are only moved per on-chain rules.


Proposals to take certain actions like allocating treasury funds or adopting policies can be made by any member for the DAO to vote on.


Members vote on proposals and other governance matters according to the voting power granted to them by their token holdings.


To coordinate proposals, voting, and operations, DAOs rely on software like apps, smart contracts, bots, and dashboards.

Work Output

DAOs produce work like code, products, content, data, or services through the coordinated effort of community members.


Economic and social incentives like payment in tokens encourage members to actively participate and contribute rather than free ride.


Quantified reputation metrics like token holdings, past contributions, votes cast, etc. determine members' influence in the community.

By dynamically bringing together these components in an open, transparent, decentralized architecture, DAOs enable new models for mobilizing capital, talent, and communities around shared goals.

How Capital Funding Works in Decentralized Autonomous Organizations

One of the most impactful economic innovations of DAOs is their novel approach to capital funding and formation:

Crowdfunding Through Token Sales

DAOs raise initial capital by minting and selling governance tokens to prospective members rather than pursuing traditional seed funding or equity investment.

Ongoing Decentralized Funding

Beyond the initial token sale, DAOs can leverage continuous crowdfunding from members who purchase additional tokens or pay recurring subscription fees.

Token Holder Voting

Major decisions on how to spend treasury capital are voted on by token holders through open governance rather than unilaterally decided by internal management.

Automated Treasury Management

DAOs encode financial rules into smart contracts that autonomously manage treasury spend based on member votes, limiting misuse of funds.

Transparent Accounting

Unlike opaque corporate accounting, DAO treasury activity and holdings are fully visible on the blockchain for members to audit in real time.

Member Exit and Liquidity

Rather than illiquid company stock, DAO tokens are freely tradable on exchanges, providing members liquidity to exit by selling tokens.

This decentralized crowdfunding and governance model aligns incentives, prevents misallocation, and provides unprecedented transparency into capital use. It represents a seismic shift from closed centralized financing.

Examples of Operating Decentralized Autonomous Organizations

While nascent, many pioneering DAOs across various domains have already been launched:

MakerDAO - Governance of the Maker Protocol to maintain the DAI stablecoin peg. $4B+ assets under management.

Uniswap - Oversight of Uniswap protocol development and treasury. $165M treasury balance.

Compound - directing protocol upgrades and treasury management for the Compound DeFi protocol. $914M treasury.

PleasrDAO - Collective that acquires culturally significant NFTs and digital art like the original doge meme NFT.

Friends with Benefits - 10,000 member social DAO coordinating events and content creation through token incentives.

DXdao - Maintains decentralized exchanges and develops governance protocols. Has funded $65M to related projects.

Krause House - Philanthropic DAO funding public software and health research through member coordination.

Flux - Entertainment DAO for supporting musicians through crypto patronage and decentralized ticketing.

CityDAO - Collective of individuals coordinating to acquire land and build a borderless city in Wyoming.

These pioneering examples provide tangible case studies as models of community governance, coordination, and capital formation through decentralized code rather than centralized offices and management.

Evaluating the Benefits and Drawbacks of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations

Benefits of the DAO Model

  • Censorship Resistance - participation is permissionless based on tokens
  • Transparency - finances and activity are auditable on-chain
  • Flexibility - structure can be customized and optimized
  • Global participation - borderless community coordination
  • Highly scalable - automation allows DAOs to efficiently scale
  • Rapid innovation - DAOs can quickly implement new proposals through member voting compared to corporate bureaucracy
  • Resilience - decentralized architecture withstands single points of failure
  • Shared incentives - token alignment incents collective effort toward shared goals
  • Meritocracy - reputation and achievement trump credentials and hierarchy
  • Funding efficiency - lean crowdfunding avoids expensive middlemen and intermediaries

Potential Drawbacks and Limitations

  • Technological barriers - understanding and using DAOs still requires high technical proficiency
  • Regulatory uncertainty - the legal standing of this new type of structure is still unclear
  • Lack of recourse - no centralized authority to appeal to in case of disputes
  • Lack of physical presence - reliance on digital channels only may limit real-world interaction and event opportunities
  • Inaccessible to non-cryptonatives - high barrier to entry for those unfamiliar with crypto, NFTs, etc.
  • Plutocracy - influence concentrated in hands of wealthy token holders
  • Diffuse responsibility - actions decided collectively rather than personal accountability
  • Lack of privacy - discussions and activity are publicly accessible rather than protected
  • Open to manipulation - incentive misalignment or security holes could corrupt processes
  • Experimental technology - smart contracts and blockchains still carry risks as new technology

A balanced perspective recognizes both the immense potential of DAOs as well as the possible pitfalls and growing pains facing this nascent organizational model.

The Evolution of Organizations - From Hierarchies to DAOs

The emergence of DAOs represents an evolution in how human beings collaborate toward shared goals:

Early Tribes

Early hunter-gatherer groups organized in small, egalitarian tribes without rigid hierarchy. Leadership was ad hoc based on experience and consensus.

Formal Hierarchies

As civilizations grew larger, organizations adopted top-down hierarchies with entrenched leadership to coordinate at scale through command, control, and specialization.


Industrialization led to the proliferation of large bureaucratic institutions both private and governmental with administration flowing downward through complex hierarchies.


Corporations formalized business under legal charters with ownership as equity shares. Decision-making power concentrated at the top according to equity ownership.

Networked Teams

Knowledge work and increasing digitization led to flatter corporate structures and geographically distributed workforces connected informally through digital networks.

Open Source Projects

Voluntary loosely coordinated communities like open source software projects pioneered decentralized production and transparent processes outside formal corporate constraints.


Blockchain technology now enables decentralized pseudonymous groups to coordinate capital and labor at scale through formalized token-based incentives and governance.

DAOs arguably represent the latest evolutionary step in how human beings can come together to produce value and achieve complex goals at a large scale.

Predicting the Future Trajectory and Impact of DAOs

As a disruptive organizational model, DAOs face an exciting yet uncertain future. Some projections:

  • DAO tooling will improve - Frameworks will simplify and modularize DAO building, opening participation
  • Mainstream adoption will increase - Major brands and celebrities will launch high-profile community DAOs to tap the model
  • Interoperability will expand - Increased DAO-to-DAO collaboration and interoperability across protocols and applications
  • Regulation will intensify - Lawmakers will eventually step in as DAOs grow, for better or worse
  • DAOs will intersect with the Metaverse - Virtual worlds and digital assets will integrate with and expand the realm of DAOs
  • DAO functionality will deepen - Increased capabilities like identity mechanisms, melting tokens, mixer contracts to enhance governance
  • DAO data will quantify benefits - Tangible data like proposals passed, jobs created, ROI generated will highlight benefits over legacy structures
  • DAOs will be a mainstream choice for entrepreneurs - Rather than starting companies, founders may launch community DAOs around their vision
  • National borders will erode - DAOs will be truly global and borderless thanks to crypto, removing geographic barriers
  • Hierarchy could sunset - Hierarchical institutions will face mounting pressure to compete with fast, adaptable DAOs

As these trends take shape, DAOs may profoundly reshape work, society, finance, politics, and human advancement on a global scale.


DAOs represent a new paradigm for how human beings can work together by replacing centralized hierarchies with decentralized, token-based communities. This organizational model is now possible thanks to the intersection of cryptocurrency, smart contracts, Web3 technologies, and open source culture.

While challenges and unknowns lie ahead, DAOs have immense potential to make human collaboration, finance, and creativity more transparent, open, decentralized, and optimized for the digital age we inhabit. DAOs provide a glimpse into how blockchain technology could reshape society when applied to domains like organization and governance that have long relied on legacy structures. Their future could be bright if the benefits are realized while thoughtfully navigating the risks.